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By Jake Fuss
and Milagros Palacios
The Fraser Institute

Over the last few years, the federal government and many provincial counterparts have weakened incentives for entrepreneurs by raising personal income taxes. This budget season provides an opportunity to reverse this trend and introduce tax policies to attract, encourage and retain entrepreneurs.

Jake Fuss

Jake Fuss

The process should start with the federal government, which introduces its 2019 budget later this month.

In 2015, the federal government introduced a 33 percent tax bracket for entrepreneurs, professionals and successful business owners. Similar changes in Ontario, Alberta, British Columbia and several other provinces compounded this higher federal tax rate. The personal income tax rate imposed on these Canadians now exceeds 50 percent in seven provinces, with the remaining provinces within a hair of 50 percent.

In addition to higher personal taxes, new and expanded federal and provincial regulations have made Canada a much less hospitable place to start a business, expand a business or invest new capital.

A recent study analyzed provincial data from 1984 to 2015 and found that higher top income tax rates discourage entrepreneurship and decrease the rate of small business startups, which is a commonly used measure of entrepreneurship. A one percentage point increase in the top rate can prevent up to almost 700 new businesses from being started. And some provinces have had increases of more than eight percentage points in their top tax rate when the federal increases are included.

The decision about where to locate a new business is influenced by differences in income tax rates between jurisdictions.


Take the example of an engineer who’s considering starting her new firm in Canada or the United States. Among several factors, the differences in personal income tax rates between the countries stand out. Despite taking on considerable personal risk, she would face a combined top rate between 47.5 and 54.0 percent in Canada compared to a low of 37.0 percent in the U.S. Her time and effort in starting the new business provides a much lower reward in Canada. She will likely decide to live and work in the lower tax jurisdiction.

The U.S. is Canada’s largest and most direct competitor in attracting and retaining entrepreneurs.

A recent study demonstrated that Canada’s personal income tax rates are markedly less attractive for entrepreneurs than rates south of the border. The list of 10 jurisdictions with the highest combined rates at $150,000 of income among the U.S. states and Canadian provinces are exclusively Canadian. No state – including high-tax jurisdictions such as New York, California and New Jersey – have higher personal income tax rates at this level of income.

Canadian tax increases come at a time when the U.S. government has implemented sweeping reforms to push rates down for business owners and entrepreneurs.

Canada’s top combined personal income tax rates are among the highest in the industrialized world. Out of 34 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, Canada had the seventh highest combined top rate in 2017.

This should be eye-opening for policy-makers. Canada is at a huge disadvantage for attracting and retaining entrepreneurs who we rely on for innovation, employment growth and general economic prosperity.

High personal income tax rates have made Canada a less desirable place for entrepreneurship.

During this year’s budget season, the federal and provincial governments must reduce personal income tax rates to create an environment conducive to entrepreneurship, risk-taking and growth.

Jake Fuss and Milagros Palacios are analysts at the Fraser Institute.

entrepreneurs taxes budget

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