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John MuscedereThe new year is a good time to put making end-of-life wishes at the top of your to-do list.

It’s a perfect time to tell family and friends your healthcare preferences in case one day you’re unable to speak for yourself. This advance care planning is good for your peace of mind and for your loved ones, too.

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Studies show that people who have conversations about their end-of-life preferences are much more likely to be satisfied with the care received. And their caregivers are less likely to suffer from depression or be left wondering if they made the right decisions for their loved ones.

The majority of those nearing end of life are often unable to make decisions for themselves. Yet one poll found that only half of Canadians had discussed their wishes with family or friends – and only 10 percent had discussed the topic with healthcare providers.

So here are four steps to help guide conversations about your advance care plan:

1. Reflect on what makes life meaningful for you

What do you value most about your physical and mental health? For many, this includes independence, interacting with family and friends, and favourite hobbies. Now imagine what might make life unacceptable for you.

Modern medicine can and will prolong life in many cases. But it can also mean prolonging the end of life and may require living with severe limitations, such as reduced mental capacity, loss of ability to control bodily functions, lack of mobility and loss of privacy. This is unacceptable to many people; one study found that over half of seriously-ill patients in hospital would rather not be kept alive on life support when there is little hope for a meaningful recovery.

Advance care planning is typically thought about in the context of advanced age or specific diagnoses such as cancer. However, it’s important for everybody to do, and particularly for those with multiple medical problems and frailty. While frailty increases with age, it can occur at any age and increases the chances of dying. Although catastrophic illness can occur at any time, frailty increases the likelihood that end of life is nearing and when life-prolonging procedures may not be appropriate or effective.

While many people reaching the end of life say they want to die at home, without an advance care plan, they are often trapped in hospital enduring heroic procedures rather than receiving comfort care during the little time they might have leftComfort care includes pain and symptom management to prevent or relieve suffering at the end of life.

2. Find out your care options and choose a substitute decision maker

Learning about care procedures for end of life will help inform your advance care plan. You can find some common medical and legal terms at And talk to your doctor.

Many sick or elderly people worry about being a burden to their families. The good news is that patients who have end-of-life conversations place less of a strain on caregivers, and are more likely to receive hospice care or palliative support at home.

Think about and designate a substitute decision maker. This is someone you trust to make healthcare decisions based on your wishes in the event you can’t make them.

3. Talk about your wishes

Talk to your substitute decision maker, loved ones and your doctor.

Your loved ones will be grateful that you spoke up. When patients have an advance care plan, their families are much more likely to know that their loved one’s wishes were known and followedLack of planning has been shown to leave families less satisfied during terminal illness or in the months following death.

There are many ways to get the conversation started and it doesn’t have to be grim. The blog recommends humour as a useful strategy. It may take a few tries to be heard but don’t give up.

4. Write it down – just like a will

Once you’ve arrived at a plan, write it down and make sure everyone knows. In particular, make sure that healthcare providers and institutions are aware and have noted it in your chart. At present, patient preferences are only known in a minority of cases.

Canadians are living longer and healthier. A little planning can ensure the well-being of you and your loved ones at the end of life as well.

You’ve probably already written a will for your things, so why not write an advance care plan for yourself?

John Muscedere is the scientific director and CEO of the Canadian Frailty Network (CFN), a not-for-profit organization funded in 2012 by the government of Canada’s Networks of Centres of Excellence (NCE) program. He is also a professor in the School of Medicine at Queen’s University, and an intensive care physician at Kingston General Hospital.

John is a Troy Media contributor. Why aren’t you?

© Troy Media

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The views, opinions and positions expressed by columnists and contributors are the author’s alone. They do not inherently or expressly reflect the views, opinions and/or positions of our publication.

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An aging Canadian population and smaller families, combined with reduced health and social care budgets, mean the challenges of providing care to seniors will only worsen. Legions of families are buckling under the emotional, physical and fiscal burdens of caregiving. These pressures will be exacerbated by growing numbers of people living with demanding health challenges such as dementia, with fewer and fewer people to take care of them. The natural web of caring that so many of us take for granted is at risk of unravelling. Troy Media’s Family Ties examines the issues facing caregivers and the healthcare system in general and seeks solutions. If you have a story to tell, contact us at [email protected]

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